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Receptor (biochemistry)

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(Redirected from Receptor (proteomics))

In biochemistry, a receptor is a protein on the cell membrane or within the cytoplasm or cell nucleus that binds to a specific factor (a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter, hormone, or other substance, and initiates the cellular response to the ligand. As all receptors are proteins, their structure is encoded into the DNA. Most hormone genes contain a short sequence that signals to the cell whether it needs to be transported to the cell membrane or it is to remain in the cytoplasm.

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Overview

Many genetic disorders involve hereditary defects in receptor genes. Often, it is hard to determine whether the receptor is nonfunctional or the hormone is produced at decreased level; this gives rise to the "pseudo-hypo-" group of endocrine disorders, where there appears to be a decreased hormonal level while in fact it is the receptor that is not responding sufficiently to the hormone.

Transmembrane receptor:E=extracellular space; I=intracellular space; P=plasma membrane
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Transmembrane receptor:E=extracellular space; I=intracellular space; P=plasma membrane

Receptors exist in different types, dependent on their ligand and function:

Peripheral membrane protein receptors

Transmembrane receptors

Metabotropic receptors

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs)

These receptors are also known as seven transmembrane receptors or 7TM receptors.

Tyrosine kinase receptors

Guanylyl cyclase receptors

Ionotropic receptors

Intracellular receptors

Transcription factors

Various

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See also:

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