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Bonn

From Academic Kids

Coat of arms Map
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Basic information
Bundesland: North Rhine-Westphalia
Regierungsbezirk: Cologne
Kreis: Kreisfreie Stadt
Area: 141.22 km
Population: 313,605 (December 31, 2004) [1] (http://www.bonn.de/statistik_wahlen/index.asp?10220)
Population density: 2,220 residents/km
Elevation: 45.6-194.8 m above sea level
Postal codes: 53000-53359 (old: 5300)
Area code: 0228
License plate prefix: BN
Gemeindeschlssel: 05 3 14 000
ISO 3166-2: DE BON
Official Website: www.bonn.de
Politics
Mayor: Brbel Dieckmann (SPD)

Bonn is a city in Germany (Population (2004 est): 313,605 ; the 19th largest city in Germany), in the Bundesland of North Rhine-Westphalia, located about 20 kilometres south of Cologne on the river Rhine. It was the capital of West Germany from 1949 to 1990. From 1288 to 1803 it was the residence of the Archbishops and prince-electors of Cologne.

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historic town hall
Contents

History

The history of the city dates back to Roman times. About 10 BC the Romans constructed a bridge across the Rhine close to a place called "Bonna". After the Roman defeat in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest this small camp was enlarged to become a fort for 7000 legionnaires.

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Munster cathedral

The fort became a town which remained after the Romans left. Between the 11th and 13th centuries, the Romanesque style Munster (cathedral) was built, and in 1597 it became the capital of the principality of Cologne. The town gained more influence and grew considerably. The elector Clemens August (ruled 1724-1761) ordered the construction of a series of Baroque buildings which still give the city its character. Another memorable ruler was Max Franz (ruled 1784-1794), who founded the university and the spa quarter of Bad Godesberg. In addition he was a patron of the young Ludwig van Beethoven, who was born in the city in 1770; the elector financed the composer's first journey to Vienna.

In 1794 the town was seized by French troops. It became a part of the Napoleonic Empire. In 1815 Bonn was taken by Prussia and remained a Prussian city until 1945. The town was of little relevance in these years.

Following World War II Bonn was in the British zone of occupation, and in 1949 became the capital of West Germany. The choice of Bonn was made due to the advocacy of Konrad Adenauer, who was from near Cologne.

The German reunification in 1990 made Berlin the nominal capital of Germany again. However, this decision did not necessarily imply that the republic's political institutions would also move. This was only concluded by the Bundestag (Germany's parliament) on June 20, 1991, after a heated debate. While the government and parliament moved, as a compromise, some of the ministries largely remained in Bonn, with only the top officials in Berlin. There was no plan to move these departments, and so Bonn remained a second, unofficial capital. Because of the necessary construction work, the move took several years (until 1999) to complete.

The University of Bonn, with ca. 30,000 students, is one of the biggest in Germany.

Districts

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Districts of Bonn

In 1969, the independent towns of Bad Godesberg and Beuel as well as several villages were incorporated into Bonn, resulting in a city more than twice as large as before. Bad Godesberg and Beuel became districts (Stadtbezirke) of Bonn with some independence and populations of about 70,000 each.

Buildings and structures

  • Beethoven-House
  • Botanischer Garten (Botanical Garden), where Titan arum reached a world record
  • Poppelsdorf-Castle
  • UN Campus
  • University
  • Haus der Geschichte (museum of history)
  • Kunstmuseum (art museum)

Twin towns

District of Bad Godesberg

District of Beuel

District of Hardtberg

See also

External link

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