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Belarus

From Academic Kids

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For other uses, see Belarus (disambiguation).

Belarus (Belarusian: Белару́сь, Biełaruś, Russian: Белару́сь (formerly: Белору́ссия), Polish: Białoruś) is a landlocked nation of Eastern Europe with the capital Minsk. Belarus borders Poland on the west, Lithuania on the northwest, Latvia on the north, Russia on the east, and Ukraine on the south. The country is formally named the Republic of Belarus (Рэспу́бліка Белару́сь; Respublika Biełaruś)

Рэспу́бліка Белару́сь
Respublika Biełaruś
Missing image
Flag_of_Belarus.png
Flag of Belarus

Missing image
Belarus_coa.png
Coat of Arms of Belarus

(Flag) (Coat of Arms)
Motto: none
Anthem: "My Belarusy"
Missing image
LocationBelarus.png
Location of Belarus

Capital Minsk
Template:Coor dm
Largest city Minsk
Official languages Belarusian, Russian
Government
President
Prime Minister

Aleksandr Lukashenko
Sergey Sidorsky
Established
- Declared
- Recognised
Independence from Soviet Union
27 July, 1990
August 25, 1991
Area
 • Total
 • Water (%)
 
[[1_E11 m�|207,600 km²]] (84th)
negligible
Population
 • 2004 est.
 • census
 • Density
 
10,310,520 (78th)

50/km² (149th)
GDP (PPP)
 • Total
 • Per capita
2003 estimate
$13 billion (74th)
$1,770 (102nd)
Currency Rouble (BYR)
Time zone
 • Summer (DST)
EET (UTC+2)
EEST (UTC+3)
Internet TLD .by
Calling code +375
Contents

Origin and history of the name

The spellings Belorussia and Byelorussia are transliterations of the name of the country in Russian, and are no longer widely used.

Historically in English, and today in some languages, Belarus was sometimes referred to as "White Russia" (a literal though not entirely correct translation of its name) or "White Ruthenia." The name "Byelorussia" is considered derogatory by some, as it reminds them of Russian and Soviet imperialism and policies of russification (the full title of the Russian tsar was "Emperor of All the Russias—Great, Minor, and White").

History

Main article: History of Belarus

The present Slavic population of Belarus settled there between the 6th and the 8th century. The Early East Slavs gradually came in contact with the Varangians and were organized under the Rus', notably in the principality of Polatsk in modern-day northern Belarus.

By the 13th century, the state of Rus was gravely impacted by the Mongol invasion. Belarusian territories were the core of newly created Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The city of Navahradak in today's western Belarus was the first capital of this state. This duchy as well included a number of territories of Rus' and Samogitia. There was no discrimination against any of nations or religions nor any major tension between them and people of them all dominated in their own regions.

The Grand Duchy stretched across much of Eastern Europe from the Baltic Sea to the Black Sea in 15th century. Since February 2, 1386, when Grand Duke Yahaila was crowned the King of Poland, Grand Duchy was joint with Poland in a personal union under one monarch. In 1569 Poland and Grand Duchy formally merged into the new state of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. This union remained in force until the May Constitution of 1791, which abolished all the subdivisions of the states and merged into Kingdom of Poland. However, the new state was annexed soon afterwards by Imperial Russia, Prussia and Austria in the effect of the Partitions of Poland of 1795.

After the Russian Revolution of 1917, at the end of the German occupation during World War I, on March 25, 1918 Belarusians declared their independence for the first time, but the Belarus National Republic (Беларуская Народная Рэспубліка) was short-lived and didn't manage to remain independent. In modern Belarus, Lukashenko's official historians disregard the date of the independence proclaimed by BNR, but many Belarusians celebrate March 25 every year both publicly and in private.

In 1919, the Byelorussian SSR was declared, which in 1922 became one of the founding members of the Soviet Union.

In World War II, Belarus was occupied by Nazi Germany between 1941 and 1944. Another notable harsh period in Belarusian history was the Chernobyl accident of 1986.

Belarus declared independence from the Soviet Union on July 27 1990.

On December 8, 1991, the leaders of Russia (Boris Yeltsin), Ukraine (Leonid Kravchuk), and Belarus (Stanislav Shushkevich) republics met in Belarus, in Belavezhskaya Pushcha, to issue a declaration that the Soviet Union was dissolved and replaced by the Commonwealth of Independent States.

Politics

Main article: Politics of Belarus

Belarus is a republic governed by a President and a bicameral Parliament (National Assembly or Natsyyanal'ny Skhod). The judiciary is headed by a Supreme Court and a Constitutional Court.

Western media, politicians and political scientists have increasingly labelled Belarus as Europe's last dictatorship due to the authoritarian rule of president Aleksandr Lukashenko. Belarus is the only country in Europe to be barred from full membership in the Council of Europe and to be identified by the United States as an "outpost of tyranny."

During the rule of the current administration in Belarus there have been several cases of persecution, disappearance and mysterious deaths of prominent opposition leaders and independent journalists. Pavel Sheremet, a journalist criticizing the Lukashenko regime, was continuously persecuted for miscellaneous reasons. Dmitri Zavadsky, an opposition journalist, has disappeared. Anatoli Majsenia, chief of the anti-presidential Center for Strategic Initiatives, died in an automobile crash that looked like a staged accident. Mikhail Marinich, leader of the opposition, was jailed. Belarus is also the only country in Europe where capital punishment is still legal and executed.

Subdivisions

Main article: Subdivisions of Belarus

At the higher administrative level, Belarus is divided into six provinces (voblasts), with Minsk city having a special status of the national capital.

(Administrative centers are given in parentheses.)

*1 Minsk (capital)
*2 Brest Province (Brest)
*3 Homyel Province (Homyel')
*4 Hrodna Province (Hrodna)
*5 Mahilyow Province (Mahilyow)
*6 Minsk Province (Minsk)
*7 Vitsebsk Province (Vitsebsk)
Missing image
Subdivisions_of_Belarus.png


Voblasts are further subdivided into raions (usually translated as districts).

Geography

Main article: Geography of Belarus

Map of Belarus

Although landlocked, it has 11,000 lakes. Three major rivers run through it: the Neman River, the Pripyat River, and the Dnepr River. Belarus is relatively flat and marsh-rich. The largest marsh territory is Polesie. Belarus' highest point is Dzyarzhynskaya Hara (Dzyarzhynsk Hill), 345 m, and its lowest point on the Neman river, 90 m.

The natural resources of Belarus are forests, peat deposits, small quantities of oil and natural gas, granite, dolomitic limestone, marl, chalk, sand, gravel, and clay.

See also:

Economy

Main article: Economy of Belarus

Lukashenko launched the country on the path of "market socialism" in 1995. In keeping with this policy, Lukashenko re-imposed administrative controls over prices and currency exchange rates and expanded the state's right to intervene in the management of private enterprise. In addition to the burdens imposed by high inflation, businesses have been subject to pressures emanating from both central and local governments, e.g., arbitrary changes in regulations, numerous rigorous inspections, and retroactive application of new business regulations prohibiting practices that had been legal. A lot of profitable businesses that were privatized during early 90's have now been nationalized or taken under over by the Presidential administration, businesses describe the current situation as "creeping nationalization."

Further economic problems are two consecutive bad harvests, 1998-1999, and persistent trade deficits. Close economic relations with Russia remain extremely important for Belarus economy. For the time being, Belarus remains self-isolated from the West and its open-market economies.

Demographics

Main article: Demographics of Belarus

Belarus is primarily inhabited by Belarusians, and some Russians, Poles, Ukrainians and others.

Most demographic indicators resemble other European countries, notably with both the population growth rate and the natural growth rate in the negative.

Religion

According to various estimates, 60 to 70 percent of Belarusians consider themselves Russian Orthodox, about 15 to 20 percent are Roman Catholics, and 5 to 10 percent are Protestants or of other faith. There are a considerable number of atheists.

Historically the Belarusians have practiced a variety of religions including the Russian Orthodoxy, Catholicism, and Protestantism.

Since president Lukashenko in 1994 has come to power, the Russian Orthodox Church in Belarus has been favoured by the government. This has been particularly evident in tax breaks that have allowed the Church to become a large-scale exporter of tax-free vodka and cigarettes. A new religion law was passed in 2003 against the will of Catholics, Protestants as well as other believers. They complain that it discriminates against them, giving preference to the Orthodox Church in many areas.

(See also Kalvaryja cemetery, an old Catholic cemetery in Minsk).

Culture

Main article: Culture of Belarus

See also:

Symbols from earlier history

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Flag_of_Belarus_(1991).png
The white-red-white flag of Belarus

Missing image
BelarusHistoricalCoatOfArms.png
The Chase/Pahonya CoA of Belarus

The images show the white-red-white flag (бел-чырвона-белы сцяг) and The Chase (Паго́ня, Pahonya) coat of arms. These historical symbols were adopted as the symbols of the Belarus National Republic and as the official national symbols of the Republic of Belarus from the time it got its independence in July 1991 and until the Referendum of 1995. The coat of arms is similar to that of Lithuania (Vytis).

Miscellaneous topics

External links

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Dependencies: Akrotiri and Dhekelia2 | Faroe Islands | Gibraltar | Guernsey | Jan Mayen | Jersey | Isle of Man | Svalbard
1. Country partly in Asia. 2. Usually assigned to Asia geographically, but often considered European for cultural and historical reasons.
ang:Hwtrussland

an:Belarrusia ast:Bielorrusia bg:Беларус be:Беларусь bn:বেলারুশ bs:Bjelorusija ca:Bielorssia cv:Белоруси cs:Bělorusko cy:Belarus da:Hviderusland de:Weirussland et:Valgevene el:Λευκορωσία es:Bielorrusia eo:Belorusio fa:بلاروس fr:Bilorussie fy:Wyt-Rusln gl:Bielorrusia - Беларусь ko:벨라루스 hy:Բելառուս io:Bielorusia id:Belarus it:Bielorussia he:בלארוס ht:Byelorusi ka:ბელარუსი la:Ruthenia Alba lv:Baltkrievija lt:Baltarusija lb:Wissrussland li:Wit-Rsland hu:Belarusz ms:Belarus zh-min-nan:Belarus na:Belarus nl:Wit-Rusland nds:Wittrussland ja:ベラルーシ no:Hviterussland pl:Białoruś pt:Bielorrssia ro:Belarus ru:Белоруссия sa:बेलारूस simple:Belarus sk:Bielorusko sl:Belorusija sr:Белорусија fi:Valko-Venj sv:Vitryssland uk:Білорусь yi:בעלאָרוסיע zh:白俄罗斯

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