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1270s

From Academic Kids

Centuries:
12th century - 13th century - 14th century
Decades:

1230s 1240s 1250s - 1260s - 1270s 1280s 1290s

Years:

1270 1271 1272 1273 1274 1275 1276 1277 1278 1279

The 1270s is the decade starting January 1, 1270, and ending December 31, 1279.

In Europe, power struggles within the Holy Roman Empire escalated into civil war as the 23-year interregnum without an emperor came to an end. Election of Rudolph I of Germany as King of Germany over Otakar II of Bohemia in 1273 led to open war in 1276 and Otakar's death in 1278 at the climactic Battle of Marchfeld. The resultant power structure in central Europe firmly established the Habsburg dynasty's rule, one that would continue Austria and other reginal territories until the end of World War I in 1918. On the British Isles, King Edward I of England returned from the Eighth Crusade to take the throne and was able to subjugate Wales by the end of the decade; Scotland quelled an uprising on the Isle of Man, in doing so confirming the concession of that territory made in 1266 by Norway in the Treaty of Perth. The Statutes of Westminster established a series of individuals' rights in England. Both the Eighth Crusade and Ninth Crusade were brief efforts that quickly ended in failure, with King Louis IX of France dying during the former.

The Mongol Empire continued its expansion to the east, conquering the Song Dynasty of China by the end of the decade and subjugating most of continental Asia. The conquest of China witnessed the first use of firearms in war. Kublai Khan moved his capital to present-day Beijing and renamed his empire the Yuan Dynasty, reflecting the new eastward focus of the empire. The western Ilkhanate established a capital at Tabriz, in present-day Iran. The Mongols were able to quell the Sambyeolcho Rebellion in Korea and defeat the Nakhi and Pagan Empires, but failed an attempted invasion of Japan in 1274. Marco Polo reached Kublai Khan's summer court by 1275, and stayed with the court for over 20 years.

The Mamluk sultanate of Egypt continued to expand its territory and dodge two crusades -- the Eighth Crusade never reached its intended target, and the Ninth rapidly became a failure. The sultan Baibars was successful in expanding his territory as far north as the Sultanate of Rm in Anatolia, east into Syria, and south into Makurian Nubia. After Baibars died in 1277, his successor Qalawun continued expansionist policies.

European culture witnessed the arrival of several important scientific works in translation from centuries-old Arabic sources, including Alhazen's work on optics and Al-Razi's medical works. The two major surveys of the English census known as the Hundred Rolls were conducted. Thomas Aquinas completed his seminal work Summa Theologica late in 1273, and died in 1274. Leadership of the Catholic Church attempted to address the East-West Schism of the church through the Second Council of Lyons, but despite apparent success the effort was ultimately doomed to fail. In Japan, Nichiren continued to lead a life that would come to be revered in Nichiren Buddhism.

In North America, a severe 23-year drought began in the Grand Canyon area, which would eventually force the local Anasazi people to emigrate from the region.

Contents

War and politics

Europe

War and peace

Political entities

Political reform

Asia and Africa

Mongol Empire sphere of influence

Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt sphere of influence

South Asia

Africa

Americas

  • 1276 - A severe 23-year drought begins to affect the Grand Canyon area, eventually forcing the agriculture-dependent Anasazi culture to migrate out of the region.

Culture

Science, literature, and industry

Art, architecture, and music

Religion

Christianity

Judaism

Buddhism

Islam

Zoroastrianism

  • 1278 - The earliest known written copy of the Avesta, a collection of ancient sacred Persian Zoroastrian texts previously passed down orally, is produced.

Births

Deaths

it:Anni 1270 zh:1270年代

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