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1260s

From Academic Kids

Centuries:
12th century - 13th century - 14th century
Decades:

1230s 1240s 1250s - 1260s - 1270s 1280s 1290s

Years:

1260 1261 1262 1263 1264 1265 1266 1267 1268 1269

The 1260s is the decade starting January 1, 1260 and ending December 31, 1269.

In the Mongol Empire, Kublai Khan became the supreme leader and moved his capital to Beijing; while he fought the southern Chinese Song Dynasty, the empire saw its first significant military defeats — first in Palestine at the hands of the Mamluks of Egypt, and later in the Caucasus. The Mamluks, led by their new sultan Baibars, quickly became a regional power in the Middle East by capturing a number of crusader states and repulsing Mongol attacks. The Empire of Nicaea succeeded in capturing Constantinople and the rest of the Latin Empire, thus re-establishing the Byzantine Empire.

In Europe, political strife and territorial disputes led to widespread warfare around the continent. England witnessed the Second Barons' War, a civil war fought over the aristocracy's disillusionment with King Henry III's attempts to maintain an absolute monarchy. The pope of the Catholic Church, aligned against the Hohenstaufen dynasty of the Holy Roman Emperor, succeeded in eliminating the line when the last male heir, Conradin, was killed by papal ally Charles I of Sicily, a Frenchman. Meanwhile, King Otakar II of Bohemia became the most powerful prince in Europe, expanding his territories through both warfare and inheritance. In other developments, both Iceland and Greenland accepted the overlordship of Norway, but Scotland was able to repulse a Norse invasion and broker a favorable peace settlement. In Spain, the Reconquista continued as several important cities were recaptured from the Moors. Political reforms were instituted in the election procedures of the pope and the doges of Venice, and the parliaments of Ireland and England met for the first time.

Several important cultural achievements were made in the decade, including publication of Roger Bacon's important scientific work Opus Majus and Thomas Aquinas' Summa contra Gentiles. Masterpieces of architecture and sculpture were completed at cathedrals around Europe, including the Cathedral of Chartres and Nicola Pisano's pulpits for the Duomo di Siena and Pisa's Baptistery. In religion, the Sukhothai kingdom in Thailand adopts Buddhism as its official religon. In Europe anti-Semitism intensified, as several authorities promulgated laws requiring Jews to wear identifying yellow badges, Jews were massacred in England, and the Talmud was attacked and censored by the Catholic Church.

Contents

War and politics

Europe

War and peace

North and West Europe
Central and South Europe
Iberian Peninsula
Southeast Europe
England: The Second Barons' War

Political entities

Political reform

People

Asia and Africa

Mongol Empire

Mamluk sultanate of Egypt

Byzantine Empire

North Africa

South Asia

Culture

Science, literature, and industry

Art, architecture, and music

Cities and institutions

Religion

Christianity

Judaism

Buddhism

Births

Deaths

de:1260er es:Años 1260 fr:Années 1260 ko:1260년대 it:Anni 1260

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